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The Future Citations

Status active.


Pre read the HAZWOPER Guidence Manual.

Any questions call (773) 538-3333

Medical Surveillance

  1. Physicals and Exit Physicals
  2. Medical rights
  3. Heat Stress
  4. Cold Stress
  5. Sunlight
  6. Noise

Hazard Communication

  1. Right to Know
  2. Global Harmonization : Labels, Safety Data Sheets, and Pictograms
  3. Emergency Response Guidebook
  4. Quiz

Spill Response

  1. Initial actions
  2. Fire Science
  3. Clean up
  4. Post Emergency Response


  1. PH
  2. Acid
  3. Base
  4. Neutralization
  5. Burn Hazards

Environmental and Mechanical Hazards

Under Construction

  1. A Material Handling
  2. B General Hazard Safety Work Practices
  3. C Hydroblasting
  4. D Struck By Caught By
  5. Electrical
  6. E


  1. What is Toxic
  2. Dose Response Relationship
    The relationship that associates the dose of a chemical with the effects it causes is called the dose-response relationship. A single data point relating a dose to a response is sufficient to establish a dose-response relationship. As additional data become available, it is possible to expand our understanding of the dose-response relationship to cover a range of doses or exposures. Dose-response is an important principle in toxicology, and an understanding of dose-response is important in establishing occupational or other exposure limits. Knowing how toxic substances act makes it easier to predict the potential effects of exposure. (It is, of course, generally true that lowering dose reduces response, and data are often available to demonstrate that lower doses reduce responses, at least on the grossly observable level. However, data showing that more subtle responses (e.g., those at the subcellular level) have been reduced are rarely available.) To apply dose-response relationships, it is helpful if several types of data are available. First, it must be possible to relate a response to a particular chemical. Although basic data pointing toward causality may be available, it is often difficult to refine the dose-response relationship further. For example, epidemiological studies often identify an association between a disease and one or more causative agents. However, since information on the precise identity of the etiologic agent, the actual dose received, and the true site of the response is usually not available, it is often impossible to use data from epidemiological studies to establish a precise dose-response relation between a specific dose of a toxin and an effect.

    The second condition to be met before dose-response can be established is that it must be possible to relate the response to the dose. It is relatively easy to determine that a large dose causes an obvious response. Refining the relationship, however, involves three other requirements: (1) that there be a receptor site; (2) that the response and the intensity of the response be related to the concentration of the toxin at the receptor site; and (3) that the concentration of the toxin at the site be related to the dose given.

    The third principle underlying the concept of dose-response is that there must be a quantifiable means of measuring the toxicity of a substance and a method of expressing this measured toxicity. Although lethality in test animals is often used to measure toxicity, the best form of measurement would involve quantification of the sequence of molecular events occurring during the toxic response. In the absence of such endpoints, other good methods are available. For example, it is common to measure an effect believed to be related to the substance in question. The level of activity of an enzyme in the blood is often used as a measure of effect, e.g., serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels are used to measure liver damage. Many different endpoints can be used to measure toxic effects, such as changes in muscle tone, heart rate, blood pressure, electrical activity of the brain, motor functioning, and behavior.

    The most widely used endpoint, especially when a new substance is involved, is lethality in an animal test system. Lethality studies allow scientists to make comparative assessments of a chemical's toxicity as it relates to that of many other substances. Research of this type also permits the gathering of essential information on dose, duration, route of administration, site of action, and the target organ of toxicity.
  3. Routes of Entry  Inhalation, Absorbtion and Ingestion
  4. Acute
  5. Chronic
  6. Biohazards

Air Monitoring

  1. Industrial Hygiene
  2. Physical State: Solid, Dust, Liquid, Mist, Vapor, Gas  Chemical Properties: Vapor Ppresure, Specific Gravity, Lower Explosive Limit, Upper Explosive Limit, Flash Point Boilging Point, Ionization potential others See NIOSH Pocket Guide
  3. Exposure Limits
  4. Air Monitoring Instrumentation
  5. Biohazard Sampling


  1. Types of Radiation
  2. The Hazard
  3. Radiation Protection


  1. Selection and Use
  2. The regulations
  3. Air purifying and Cartridges
  4. PAPR
  5. Air Line Systems
  6. SCBA

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

  1. Level D and types of personal protective equipment
  2. Level C and types of chemical resistant apparel
  3. Level B and SCBA or SAR chemical skin protection
  4. Level A SCBA and Totally Encapsulating Suits
  5. Selection and Use

Site Health and Safety Plan

  1. Program Health and Safety Plan
  2. Guidance Manual 85-115
  3. Standard Operating Procedures  See www.hazwoper.net
  4. Site Specific Plan




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